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This process of expanded information continues with the Chronicle of the Scots and Picts dated 1177, all of which include additional details about where the kings died and were buried, as well as some further family relationships.
In the case of Kings Aedh and Indulf, they are stated to have been, respectively, the brother of King Constantine I and the son of King Constantine II.
The only reference to succession practice which has been found is the report in the Chronicle of John of Fordun which states that King Kenneth II decreed a change to enable "the nearest survivor in blood to the deceased king to succeed".
The move would obviously have been unpopular in the wider royal family, and King Kenneth was not powerful enough to carry it through, as shown by his murder in 995, alleged in the same source to have been committed by his collateral relatives.
A complete analysis of the differences in regnal years between the 16 different surviving manuscripts is set out by Duncan The nub of the problem with the available Scottish sources is that each succeeding manuscript contains more detailed information than the previous ones.
The suspicion is therefore that later chroniclers supplemented the limited information available with bogus additions, for reasons which will be discussed further below.
In this context, one is reminded of the lengthy genealogies included in the later Anglo-Saxon chronicles which, as discussed in the Introduction to the document ANGLO-SAXON KINGS, were probably designed to reinforce the legitimacy of usurping monarchs and are of dubious factual accuracy.
An interesting case from the Scottish documentation appears to support this hypothesis: that of King Eochlaid, whose reign is dated to the 880s.
However, in the late 11th century Scotland was emerging from a couple of centuries of political anarchy, exacerbated by continual rivalries with England and Ireland as well as frequent Viking attacks.
For the first time, the kingdom benefited from a series of strong kings (for example Malcolm III, David I and William I) who were powerful enough to forge a sense of national identity.
Reliable information now available about the early Scottish kingdom and its kings is therefore limited.
The present document attempts to reconstruct the genealogy of the Scottish kings from the mid-9th century.
He is named in the 10th century Cronica de Origine as successor to his maternal uncle King Aedh. If our hypothesis is correct, this omission may have been intentional as his relationship to his predecessor through the female line was considered incompatible with the idea of male-line royal continuity.