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Explore this page to find out more about populations most affected, HIV testing and counselling, antiretroviral treatment, prevention programmes, barriers to prevention, funding and the future of HIV and AIDS in Zambia.In 2015, around 50,000 adults and 8,900 children became newly infected with HIV in Zambia.1 New infections are decreasing, especially in children - in 2010, 60,000 adults and 13,000 children acquired HIV.2 Contrastingly HIV prevalence in Zambia has made little progress in the last decade with records marking a 12.8% adult prevalence in 2007 compared to a 12.4% prevalence rate in 2016 according to UNAIDS.34 HIV prevalence in Zambia has declined, falling by 19% between 20.
Women are often taught never to refuse their husbands sex or to insist their partner uses a condom.
The enactment of the Anti-Gender Based Violence Act took place in 2011, with a view to changing the unequal structure of society.25 In the coming years it is hoped that this change in law will stop women being disproportionately affected by HIV.
However, there is still much to be done as more than 30% of ever married or partnered women aged 15–24 years in Zambia experienced physical or sexual violence from a male intimate partner in the previous 12 months, according to 2015 UNAIDS data.26 Children have been severely affected by the HIV epidemic in Zambia, where 85,000 children are estimated to be living with HIV, alongside 380,000 children orphaned by AIDS.27IIn 2016, 8,900 children (0-14 years) in Zambia became newly infected with HIV.
Zambia’s revised National HIV and AIDS Strategic Framework (R-NASF) 2014 – 2016 now includes indicators on sex workers, men who have sex with men, and people who inject drugs.9 Between 20, the Population Council and partners have been conducting the first integrated biological and behavioural research in Zambia to determine the population size, HIV prevalence and incidence among sex workers, men who have sex with men, and people who inject drugs.
This research will also identify social risk factors such as stigma and discrimination, alcohol and drug use, lack of access to services, and the absence of a social support network.10 Once published, the survey’s findings will provide national policymakers with objective evidence to inform HIV prevention, care, and treatment programs for key populations.
Mobile outreach, community-based testing and door-to-door HTC initiatives are also increasing uptake of HIV testing in Zambia.39 In 2015, UNITAID, Population Services International and partners began implementing self-testing in Malawi, Zambia and Zimbabwe through the four-year STAR Project (HIV Self-Testing Africa Research).
Between 20, the STAR Project will distribute nearly 750,000 self-test kits across the three countries.
About 23% had sex with two or more female sex workers in the last 12 months.18 The survey found varying condom use depending on whom the respondents were having sex with.
The results showed that, of the men questioned, condom use was at 86% with sex workers, 77% with non-regular partners, 63% with a regular partner and just 7% with wives.
One of the goals of the project is to generate evidence on the feasibility, acceptability and impact of self-testing that will then inform official World Health Organization (WHO) guidance on the intervention in order to catalyse self-testing across the globe.40 Zambia’s change in treatment policy has led to 59% of adults on ART achieving viral suppression.
At the end of 2015, over 63% of people in need of antiretroviral treatment (ART) were receiving it.
This equates to 70% of women and 58% of men living with HIV receiving ART.